Biodiversity is an essential and stabilising component of both landscapes and ecosystems. Biodiversity refers to the diversity of habitats, species and genetic variability, with the first two components (habitats and species) being of central importance for spatial research. Currently, a rapid decline in biodiversity can be observed. Of the approximately eight million known plant and animal species worldwide, about one million are threatened with extinction. In order to reverse these negative trends by 2030, the IOER is working on local protection and enhancement strategies, among other things. In addition, new management approaches for politics and administrations are being developed, analysed and evaluated, e.g. for the development of municipal biodiversity strategies. Potentials and obstacles for the restoration of biodiversity (Biodiversity Restoration) as well as its qualitative improvement (Biodiversity Net Gain) are also in the focus of the research. Strategies and instruments are identified that are tailored to the respective habitats (urban, rural). In addition, new ecosystem/biodiversity indicators, benchmarks, assessment tools and landscape scenarios will be developed within the framework of the IÖR Research Data Centre (IÖR-FDZ). The aim is to show how interactions between urban and rural areas can be designed to achieve biodiversity goals and how we can contribute to urban development based on the idea of ecosufficiency - i.e. saving energy and materials.